Socialismo

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El socialismo se refiere a un sistema económico caracterizado por la propiedad social de los medios de producción y la gestión cooperativa de la economía. [1] "propiedad social" puede referirse a cooperativas , empresas de propiedad común , de propiedad estatal o de propiedad de los ciudadanos de la equidad. [ 2] Hay muchas variedades de socialismo y no hay una definición única encapsular todos ellos. [3] Se diferencian en el tipo de propiedad social que ellos defienden, el grado en que se apoyan en los mercados o de planificación , cómo la gestión se va a organizar dentro de las instituciones productivas y el papel del Estado en la construcción del socialismo. [4]

Un sistema económico socialista consistiría en un sistema de producción y distribución organizada para satisfacer directamente las demandas económicas y las necesidades humanas, de modo que los bienes y servicios se producen directamente para su uso y no para la ganancia privada [5] impulsado por la acumulación de capital . Contabilidad se basa en cantidades físicas , una magnitud física común o una medida directa del tiempo de trabajo en lugar de cálculo financiero. [6] [7] Distribución se basa en el principio de cada cual según su contribución .

Como movimiento político , el socialismo incluye una gran variedad de filosofías políticas, que van desde el reformismo al socialismo revolucionario . Los defensores del socialismo de Estado abogan por la nacionalización de los medios de producción, distribución e intercambio como una estrategia para implementar el socialismo. Por el contrario, el socialismo libertario propone la visión tradicional del control directo de los trabajadores de los medios de producción y se opone al uso del poder del Estado para lograr tal arreglo, oponiéndose tanto a la política parlamentaria y la propiedad estatal. [ cita requerida ] El socialismo democrático tiene por objeto establecer el socialismo a través de procesos democráticos y propagar sus ideales en el contexto de una sociedad democrática del sistema político .

El socialismo moderno se originó a partir de un intelectual del siglo 18 y la clase obrera, el movimiento político que criticaba a los efectos de la industrialización y de la propiedad privada en la sociedad. A principios del siglo 19, el "socialismo" se refiere a cualquier preocupación por los problemas sociales del capitalismo, independientemente de las soluciones a esos problemas. Sin embargo, a finales del siglo 19, el "socialismo" ha llegado a significar la oposición al capitalismo y la defensa de un sistema alternativo basado en alguna forma de propiedad social. [8] marxistas amplió aún más en esto, atribuyendo científico de evaluación y democrático de planificación como crítico elementos del socialismo. [9]

Contenido

[ editar ] Filosofía

Los socialistas se adhieren a una amplia gama de puntos de vista filosóficos. Socialismo marxista es filosóficamente materialista , así como tener en su centro un compromiso con el materialismo histórico . Muchas formas de la teoría socialista sostiene que el comportamiento humano está en gran parte determinada por el entorno social. En particular, el marxismo y socialistas inspirados por la teoría marxista, sostiene que sociales costumbres , valores, rasgos culturales y las prácticas económicas son creaciones sociales, y no son el resultado de una inmutable ley natural . [10] El objetivo final de los marxistas socialistas es la emancipación de mano de obra de trabajo alienante . Los marxistas sostienen que liberar al individuo de la necesidad de realizar el trabajo alienante con el fin de recibir productos que permiten a la gente a perseguir sus propios intereses y desarrollar sus propios talentos sin ser coaccionados a realizar trabajos para otros. Para los marxistas, la etapa de desarrollo económico en que esto es posible, a veces llamado comunismo completo, depende de los avances en las capacidades productivas de la sociedad.

Los socialistas generalmente argumentan que el capitalismo concentra el poder y la riqueza en un pequeño segmento de la sociedad que controla los medios de producción y debe su riqueza a través de un sistema de explotación . Esto crea una sociedad estratificada basada en desiguales relaciones sociales que no ofrece igualdad de oportunidades para todas las personas a maximizar su potencial, [11] y no utilizar la tecnología disponible y los recursos a su máximo potencial en beneficio de la población. [12]

[ editar ] Economía

La concepción original del socialismo era un sistema económico donde la producción se organizó en una forma de producir directamente bienes y servicios por su utilidad (o valor de uso en la economía clásica y marxista): la asignación directa de recursos en términos de unidades físicas en lugar de cálculo financiero y de las leyes económicas del capitalismo (ver: ley del valor ), a menudo implican el final de las categorías económicas capitalistas como renta , interés , ganancia y dinero . [13] En una economía socialista plenamente desarrollada, la producción y el equilibrio de los factores de producción con salidas se convierte en un proceso técnico para llevar a cabo por los ingenieros. [14]

El socialismo de mercado se refiere a una serie de diferentes teorías económicas y los sistemas que utilizan el mecanismo de mercado para organizar la producción y asignar los factores de producción entre las empresas de propiedad social, con el excedente económico (beneficios) resultantes para la sociedad en un dividendo social en oposición a los propietarios de capital privado . [15] Las variaciones de socialismo de mercado incluyen Libertario propuestas como mutualismo , basado en la economía clásica y neoclásica, los modelos económicos, tales como el Modelo Lange .

La propiedad de los medios de producción pueden basarse en la propiedad directa de los usuarios de la propiedad productiva a través de cooperativas de trabajo asociado , o de propiedad común de toda la sociedad en la gestión y el control delegado en los que operar / usar los medios de producción, o la propiedad pública por un aparato estatal. propiedad pública puede referirse a la creación de empresas de propiedad estatal , nacionalización , municipalización o instituciones autónomas colectivos. La característica fundamental de una economía socialista es que de titularidad pública, organizados por los trabajadores las instituciones de producción de bienes y servicios al menos en los puestos de mando de la economía. [16]

Gestión y control de las actividades de las empresas se basan en la autogestión y el autogobierno, con la igualdad de las relaciones de poder en el lugar de trabajo para maximizar la autonomía profesional. Una forma de organización socialista supone la desaparición de las jerarquías de control de modo que sólo una jerarquía basada en el conocimiento técnico en el lugar de trabajo se mantiene. Cada miembro tendrá poder de decisión en la empresa y que puedan participar en el establecimiento de sus objetivos de política general. Las políticas / objetivos se llevarán a cabo por los técnicos que forman la jerarquía de la coordinación de la firma, que se establezcan planes o lineamientos para el trabajo comunitario para lograr estos objetivos. [17]

El papel y el uso de dinero en una economía socialista hipotética es una cuestión controvertida. Socialistas como Karl Marx , Robert Owen , Proudhon Pierre-Joseph y John Stuart Mill defendió las diversas formas de trabajo vales o créditos en mano de obra, que al igual que el dinero sería utilizado para adquirir los artículos de consumo, pero a diferencia del dinero, no son capaces de convertirse en el capital y no se utiliza para asignar recursos dentro del proceso de producción. Revolucionario bolchevique León Trotsky argumentaba que, tras una revolución socialista, el dinero no podía ser arbitrariamente abolido. El dinero tenía que agotar su "misión histórica" ​​(seguir utilizándose hasta que se convirtió en redundante), y luego se transformarían en los recibos de contabilidad para los estadísticos, y sólo en un futuro más lejano que podría no ser necesario incluso para ese papel. [ 18]

"Estoy convencido de que hay solamente un camino para eliminar el (los) graves males (del capitalismo), es decir, mediante el establecimiento de una economía socialista, acompañado por un sistema educativo que estaría orientado hacia metas sociales. En una economía así, los medios de producción son poseídos por la sociedad y utilizados de una forma planificada. Una economía planificada que ajuste la producción a las necesidades de la comunidad, distribuiría el trabajo a realizar entre todos los capacitados para trabajar y garantizaría un sustento a cada hombre , mujer y niño. La educación del individuo, además de promover sus propias capacidades naturales, procuraría desarrollar en él un sentido de responsabilidad para sus compañeros-hombres en lugar de la glorificación del poder y del éxito en nuestra sociedad actual. "

- Albert Einstein , ¿Por qué socialismo? de 1949 [19]

[ editar ] La economía planificada

Una economía planificada es un tipo de economía que consiste en una mezcla de propiedad pública de los medios de producción y la coordinación de la producción y distribución a través de la planificación económica . Hay dos tipos principales de planificación:. Descentralizado de planificación centralizada y de planificación Enrico Barone proporcionó un marco teórico general para una economía socialista planificada. En su modelo, suponiendo que perfeccionar las técnicas de cálculo, ecuaciones simultáneas relacionadas con las entradas y salidas a las relaciones de equivalencia proporcionaría valoraciones adecuadas con el fin de equilibrar la oferta y la demanda. [20]

El ejemplo más prominente de una economía planificada era el sistema económico de la Unión Soviética , y como tal, el modelo de economía centralizada planificada se suele asociar con el estados comunistas del siglo 20, donde se combina con un sistema político de partido único . En una economía de planificación centralizada, las decisiones sobre la cantidad de bienes y servicios que se producen se programen con anticipación por una agencia de planificación. (Véase también: Análisis de tipo soviético de planificación económica ). Los sistemas económicos de la Unión Soviética y el Bloque del Este se clasifican como economías planificadas, que se definen como sistemas en los que se lleva a cabo la coordinación económica por órdenes, directivas y objetivos de producción. [21] Los estudios realizados por economistas de diversas tendencias políticas en el funcionamiento real de la economía soviética indicar que no se trataba en realidad de una economía planificada. En lugar de una planificación consciente, la economía soviética se basó en un proceso en el que el plan fue modificado por agentes localizados y los planos originales fueron en gran medida sin cumplirse. Planificación de los organismos, ministerios y empresas todos adaptados y negociaron entre sí durante la formulación del plan en vez de seguir un plan transmitido de una autoridad superior, lo que lleva a algunos economistas a sugerir que la planificación en realidad no tienen lugar dentro de la economía soviética y que una mejor descripción sería un "administrado" o "dirigida" economía. [22]

A pesar de la planificación central fue apoyada en gran medida por marxistas leninistas , algunas facciones dentro de la Unión Soviética antes de la aparición de estalinismo ocupado cargos en contra de la planificación central. León Trotsky rechazó la planificación central en favor de la planificación descentralizada. Argumentó que los planificadores centrales, independientemente de su capacidad intelectual, sería incapaz de coordinar eficazmente toda la actividad económica dentro de una economía, ya que funciona sin la aportación y el conocimiento tácito incorporado por la participación de los millones de personas que en la economía. Como resultado, los planificadores centrales sería incapaz de responder a las condiciones económicas. [23]

Varios economistas y teóricos políticos , entre ellos Richard D. Wolff y Resnick Stephen , han criticado la idea de que las economías de planificación al estilo soviético representaba un tipo de economía socialista. Este análisis pone de relieve el hecho de que la economía soviética se estructuró sobre la acumulación de capital y la extracción de la plusvalía de la clase obrera por la agencia de planificación con el fin de reinvertir los excedentes en la producción de nuevo en un ciclo perpetuo - o para distribuir a los directores y funcionarios de alto nivel en la forma de bonos, lo que indica la Unión Soviética (y otras economías de tipo soviético) eran en realidad del capitalismo de Estado economías. [24] Otros socialistas han centrado su análisis en la falta de autocontrol , la persistencia de cálculo financiero y la existencia de una élite burocrática basada en poderes jerárquicos y centralizados de autoridad en el modelo soviético, lo que lleva a concluir que el sistema soviético no era socialista, sino que categorizar como colectivismo burocrático , capitalismo de estado o estados obreros deformados .

[ edit ] Autogestionado economía

Un auto-administrado, economía descentralizada se basa en la auto-regulación autónomas las unidades económicas y un mecanismo descentralizado de asignación de recursos y toma de decisiones. Este modelo ha encontrado apoyo en notables economistas clásicos y neoclásicos como Alfred Marshall , John Stuart Mill y Jaroslav Vanek . Hay numerosas variaciones de la autogestión, incluido el trabajo gestionados por las empresas y las empresas administradas por los trabajadores. Los objetivos de la autogestión son eliminar la explotación y reducir la alienación . [25]

Uno de estos sistemas es la economía cooperativa, una gran parte libre economía de mercado en la que los trabajadores de las empresas y gestionar democráticamente determinar los niveles de remuneración y las divisiones del trabajo. Los recursos productivos estaría jurídicamente de propiedad de la cooperativa y se alquilan a los trabajadores, que gozarían de usufructo derechos. [26] Otra forma de planificación descentralizada es el uso de la cibernética , o el uso de los ordenadores para gestionar la asignación de entradas económicas. El gobierno socialista de gestión de Salvador Allende en Chile experimentó con Proyecto Cybersyn , un puente de información en tiempo real entre las empresas del gobierno estatal y los consumidores. [27] Otro, más reciente, la variante es la economía participativa , en donde la economía es planificada por descentralizada los consejos de trabajadores y consumidores. Los trabajadores serán remunerados exclusivamente de acuerdo con esfuerzo y sacrificio, a fin de que quienes se dedican a trabajos peligrosos, incómodos y agotadores recibiría los ingresos más altos y por lo tanto podría trabajar menos. [28] Un modelo contemporáneo para una auto-administrado, no de mercado socialista es Pat Devine modelo @ s de coordinación negociada. Coordinación negociado se basa en la propiedad social de los afectados por el uso de los activos afectados, con las decisiones tomadas por los que están en el nivel más localizado de producción. [29]

Michel Bauwens identifica el surgimiento del movimiento del software libre y la producción peer-to-peer como una nueva alternativa de modo de producción de la economía capitalista y la economía de planificación centralizada que se basa en la colaboración en la autogestión, la propiedad común de los recursos y la producción de valores de uso a través de la libre cooperación de los productores que tienen acceso a capital repartido. [30]

El anarco-comunismo es una teoría del anarquismo que aboga por la abolición de la estatal , la propiedad privada y el capitalismo a favor de la propiedad común de los medios de producción . [31] [32]

La economía de la ex República Federativa Socialista de Yugoslavia estableció un sistema basado en el mercado basado en la asignación, la propiedad social de los medios de producción y la autogestión en las empresas. Este sistema sustituyó tipo soviético de planificación central de Yugoslavia con un sistema descentralizado, autogestionado sistema después de las reformas de 1953. [33] Otro ejemplo práctico del trabajador autogestión sindicalismo que se practica en Cataluña durante la Guerra Civil española.

[ editar ] Estado dirigido por economía

Socialismo de estado se puede utilizar para clasificar cualquier variedad de socialistas filosofías que defiende la propiedad del medio de producción por el aparato del Estado , ya sea como una etapa de transición entre el capitalismo y el socialismo, o como un objetivo final en sí mismo. Por lo general, se refiere a una forma de gestión tecnocrática, por lo que los especialistas técnicos administrar o gestionar empresas económicas en nombre de la sociedad (y el interés público) en lugar de los consejos obreros y la democracia laboral.

Una economía dirigida por el Estado puede referirse a un tipo de economía mixta que consiste en la propiedad pública sobre las grandes industrias, como impulsados ​​por diversos partidos políticos democráticos sociales durante el siglo 20. Esta ideología influyó en las políticas del Partido Laborista británico durante la administración de Clement Attlee. En la biografía del Partido Laborista de Reino Unido 1945 el primer ministro Clement Attlee estados, Francis Beckett: "el gobierno quería ... lo que se conocería como una economía mixta". [34]

La nacionalización en el Reino Unido se logró a través de la expropiación de la industria (es decir, con compensación). British Aerospace fue una combinación de las compañías principales de aviones británicos Aircraft Corporation , Hawker Siddeley y otros. constructores navales británicos era una combinación de las empresas de construcción naval más importantes, incluyendo Cammell Laird , Astilleros Govan , Hunter Cisne y constructores navales de la milenrama , la nacionalización de las minas de carbón en 1947 creó una tabla de carbón cargado con el funcionamiento de la industria del carbón comercialmente con el fin de poder cumplir con el pago de los intereses sobre los bonos que las acciones de los propietarios de minas antiguos tenían ha convertido en. [35] [36]

[ editar ] El socialismo de mercado

El socialismo de mercado se compone de empresas de propiedad pública o de propiedad cooperativa que operan en una economía de mercado . Es un sistema que utiliza el mercado y los precios monetarios para la asignación y contabilidad de la forma de producción , reteniendo así el proceso de acumulación de capital . El beneficio generado se utilizará para remunerar a los empleados directamente o financiar las instituciones públicas. [37] En el estado orientados a las formas de socialismo de mercado, en el que intento estatal a las empresas a maximizar los beneficios, las ganancias pueden ser utilizados para financiar programas y servicios gubernamentales a través de una social, dividendo , eliminando o disminuyendo en gran medida la necesidad de que las distintas formas de tributación que existen en los sistemas capitalistas. Los economistas neoclásicos Léon Walras considera que una economía socialista basada en la propiedad estatal de la tierra y los recursos naturales que proporcionan un medio de financiación pública para impuestos sobre la renta innecesaria. [38] Yugoslavia implementado una economía socialista de mercado sobre la base de las cooperativas y autogestión de los trabajadores.

El actual sistema económico de China es formalmente conocida como una economía de mercado socialista con características chinas . Combina un gran sector estatal que comprende las "alturas dominantes" de la economía, que están garantizados su condición de propiedad pública por la ley, [39] con el sector privado dedica principalmente a la producción de mercancías y la industria ligera responsable de cualquier lugar entre el 33% [40 ] (Pueblo en Línea 2005) a más del 70% del PIB generado en 2005. [41] Aunque ha habido una rápida expansión de la actividad del sector privado desde la década de 1980, la privatización de los activos estatales se detuvo virtualmente y se revirtieron parcialmente en 2005. [42] La economía china actual se compone de 150 corporatizadas las empresas públicas que dependen directamente del gobierno central de China. [43] En 2008, estas empresas de propiedad estatal se había vuelto cada vez más dinámico y ha generado un gran aumento en los ingresos para el Estado, 44 [ ] [45] resulta en una recuperación del estado impulsado por el sector durante el 2009 las crisis financieras mientras que la contabilidad de la mayoría del crecimiento económico de China. [46] Sin embargo, el modelo económico chino es ampliamente citado como una forma contemporánea de capitalismo de Estado, la principal diferencia entre capitalismo occidental y el modelo chino es el título de la propiedad estatal de las acciones de las empresas que cotizan en bolsa.

La República Socialista de Vietnam ha adoptado un modelo similar después de la Doi Moi renovación económica, pero difiere ligeramente del modelo chino en que el Gobierno vietnamita mantiene un firme control sobre el sector estatal y las industrias estratégicas, pero permite la actividad del sector privado en la producción de mercancías . [47]

[ editar ] Teoría Social y Política

En este contexto, el socialismo se ha utilizado para referirse a un movimiento político , una filosofía política y una forma hipotética de la sociedad estos movimientos apuntan a lograr. Como resultado de ello, en un contexto político socialismo ha llegado a referirse a la estrategia (para lograr una sociedad socialista) o las políticas promovidas por las organizaciones socialistas y los socialistas partidos políticos, todos los cuales no tienen conexión con el socialismo como un sistema socio-económico.

[ edit ] marxismo

"En cierta etapa de desarrollo, las fuerzas productivas materiales de la sociedad entran en contradicción con las relaciones de producción existentes, o - esto simplemente expresa lo mismo en términos jurídicos -. Con las relaciones de propiedad en el marco de las cuales se han desenvuelto hasta entonces abre así una época de revolución social. Los cambios en la base económica tarde o temprano a la transformación de la inmensa superestructura erigida sobre todo. "-Karl Marx, Crítica del Programa de Gotha [48]

Los escritos de Karl Marx sirvió de base para el desarrollo de la teoría política marxista y la economía marxista.

En la más influyente de todas las teorías económicas sobre el pensamiento socialista, Karl Marx y Friedrich Engels sostuvo que el socialismo surgen de la necesidad histórica que el capitalismo representa en sí obsoleto e insostenible de crecientes contradicciones internas que surgen del desarrollo de las fuerzas productivas y la tecnología. Fueron estos avances en las fuerzas productivas combinadas con las viejas relaciones sociales de producción del capitalismo que generaría contradicciones, lo que lleva a la conciencia obrera. [49]

Marx y Engels sostuvo la opinión de que la conciencia de los que ganan un sueldo o salario (la clase obrera en el más amplio sentido marxista) se moldea por sus condiciones de esclavitud asalariada , dando lugar a una tendencia a buscar su libertad o emancipación , al derrocar a la propiedad de los medios de producción por los capitalistas, y en consecuencia, el derrocamiento del estado que ratificó este orden económico. Para Marx y Engels, las condiciones determinan la conciencia y poner fin al papel de la clase capitalista conduce finalmente a una sociedad sin clases en la que el Estado se extinguiría .

La concepción marxista del socialismo es la de una fase histórica específica que desplazar al capitalismo y preceden comunismo . Las características principales del socialismo (especialmente concebida por Marx y Engels después de la Comuna de París de 1871) son que el proletariado se controlan los medios de producción a través de un estado obrero erigido por los trabajadores en sus intereses. La actividad económica aún se organizará a través del uso de sistemas de incentivos y las clases sociales siguen existiendo, pero en menor medida y la disminución que en el capitalismo.

Para los marxistas ortodoxos, el socialismo es la etapa inferior del comunismo basado en el principio de "de cada cual según su capacidad, a cada cual según su contribución ", mientras que la etapa superior del comunismo se basa en el principio de" de cada cual según su capacidad, a cada uno según su necesidad ", la etapa superior haciendo posible sólo después de la etapa socialista desarrolla aún más la eficiencia económica y la automatización de la producción ha llevado a una superabundancia de bienes y servicios. [50] [51]

Marx argumentó que las fuerzas productivas materiales (en la industria y el comercio) traídos a la existencia por el capitalismo predica una sociedad cooperativa ya que la producción se había convertido en una masa social, la actividad colectiva de la clase obrera para crear productos, pero con la propiedad privada (las relaciones de producción y propiedad relaciones). Este conflicto entre el esfuerzo colectivo en las grandes fábricas y la propiedad privada provocaría un deseo consciente de la clase obrera para establecer la propiedad colectiva acorde con los esfuerzos colectivos de su experiencia cotidiana. [48]

Che Guevara y Mao Tse Tung trató socialismo basado en el campesinado rural en lugar de la clase obrera urbana. Che Guevara trató de inspirar a los campesinos de Bolivia por su propio ejemplo en un cambio de conciencia. Guevara dijo en 1965:

El socialismo no puede existir sin un cambio en la conciencia que resulta en una nueva actitud fraternal frente a la humanidad, tanto a nivel individual, dentro de las sociedades en las que el socialismo se están construyendo o se ha construido, y en una escala mundial, en relación con todos los pueblos que sufren imperialista la opresión. [52]

[ editar ] Economía Evolutiva e Institucional

Thorstein Veblen , un líder americano institucionalista y economista evolutivo , argumentó que un subconjunto de la clase trabajadora, los técnicos e ingenieros, se convertiría en el motor del cambio socioeconómico dentro del capitalismo. Hay un antagonismo entre la industria y los negocios, donde la industria se refiere al proceso de producción de bienes y servicios y de negocios se define como el proceso de "hacer dinero". Thorstein Veblen vio el socialismo como una etapa inmediata en un proceso continuo evolutivo en economía que podrían resultar de la descomposición natural del sistema de la empresa. A diferencia de Marx, que no creía que el socialismo sería el resultado de la lucha política o la revolución político por la clase obrera en su conjunto y no creía que fuera el fin último de la humanidad. [53] Sin embargo, al igual que Marx, Veblen vio tecnología como la fuerza subyacente que impulsan el cambio social.

Joseph Schumpeter visto intelectuales y los intelectuales como grupo dentro de la sociedad que poco a poco se trasladaría a la sociedad hacia el socialismo. El socialismo sería en parte resultado de la evolución socio-económica, el crecimiento de los trabajadores, la autogestión, la democracia industrial y la planificación social, y en parte por la presión política por parte de los intelectuales en la sociedad occidental. [54]

[ editar ] Papel del Estado

Los socialistas tienen diferentes perspectivas sobre el estado y su papel en las luchas revolucionarias, la construcción del socialismo, y dentro de una economía socialista establecido.

Antes de la revolución bolchevique liderada por Rusia, muchos socialistas, incluidos los reformistas , marxistas ortodoxos corrientes tales como comunismo de consejos y de los mencheviques y anarquistas / socialistas libertarios criticó la idea de utilizar el Estado para llevar a cabo la planificación central y poseen los medios de producción como un manera de establecer el socialismo. [55]

Joseph Schumpeter rechaza la asociación del socialismo y la propiedad social de la propiedad estatal sobre los medios de producción, ya que el Estado, tal como existe en su forma actual es un producto de la sociedad capitalista y no puede ser trasplantado en un marco institucional diferente. Schumpeter argumentaba que, así como hay distintas instituciones dentro feudalismo , habrá diferentes instituciones con diferentes funciones dentro de socialismo. El Estado, junto con el concepto de propiedad y los impuestos , son conceptos exclusivos de la sociedad comercial (el capitalismo). colocándolas en el contexto de una cantidad futura sociedad socialista a una distorsión de estos conceptos [56]

[ edit ] utópico frente científica

Socialismo utópico es una etiqueta atribuida a los socialistas anteriores cuyo énfasis estaba en el diseño o imaginar formas ideales de la sociedad. Un socialista utópico se basa en un idealista filosofía, donde se prevé un ideal y luego trabajó hacia, en contraste a la metodología de marxismos materialista.

Para los marxistas, el desarrollo del capitalismo en Europa occidental proporcionó una base material para la posibilidad de lograr el socialismo, ya que, de acuerdo con el Manifiesto Comunista : "La burguesía produce, ante todo, sus propios sepultureros", [57] es decir, la clase obrera , que debe ser consciente de los objetivos históricos de la pusieron junto a la sociedad.

[ editar ] Reforma o revolución

Los socialistas revolucionarios creen que una revolución social es necesaria para llevar a cabo cambios estructurales en la estructura socio-económica de la sociedad. Entre los socialistas revolucionarios existen diferencias en la estrategia, la teoría y la definición de "revolución". Maxists ortodoxos y comunistas de izquierda tomar una imposibilista postura, creyendo revolución debe ser espontáneo como resultado de las contradicciones en la sociedad resultante de los cambios tecnológicos en las fuerzas productivas. In contrast, Marxist-Leninists and most Trotskyists advocate Vanguardism : the creation of a democratic centralist revolutionary Vanguard party led by a cadre of professional revolutionaries to overthrow the capitalist state and, eventually, the institution of the state altogether. "Revolution" is not necessarily defined by revolutionary socialists as violent insurrection, [ 58 ] but as a complete dismantling and rapid transformation of all areas of class society led by the majority of the masses: the working class.

Reformism is generally associated with social democracy and gradualist democratic socialism. Reformism is the belief that socialists should stand in parliamentary elections within capitalist society, and if elected, utilize the machinery of government to pass political and social reforms for the purposes of ameliorating the instabilities and inequities of capitalism.

[ editar ] Política

The major socialist political movements are described below. Independent socialist theorists, [utopian socialist] authors, and academic supporters of socialism may not be represented in these movements. Some political groups have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism. The term socialist has also been used by some politicians on the political right as an epithet against certain individuals who do not consider themselves to be socialists, and against policies that are not considered socialist by their proponents.

There are many variations of socialism and as such there is no single definition encapsulating all of socialism. However there have been common elements identified by scholars. [ 59 ] Angelo S. Rappoport in his Dictionary of Socialism (1924) analysed forty definitions of socialism to conclude that common elements of socialism include: general criticisms of the social effects of private ownership and control of capital - as being the cause of poverty, low wages, unemployment, economic and social inequality, and a lack of economic security; a general view that the solution to these problems is a form of collective control over the means of production , distribution and exchange (the degree and means of control vary amongst socialist movements); agreement that the outcome of this collective control should be a society based upon social justice , including social equality, economic protection of people, and should provide a more satisfying life for most people. [ 60 ] Bhikhu Parekh in The Concepts of Socialism (1975) identifies four core principles of socialism and particularly socialist society: sociality, social responsibility, cooperation, and planning. [ 61 ] Michael Freeden in his study Ideologies and Political Theory (1996) states that all socialists share five themes: the first is that socialism posits that society is more than a mere collection of individuals; second, that it considers human welfare a desirable objective; third, that it considers humans by nature to be active and productive; fourth, it holds the belief of human equality; and fifth, that history is progressive and will create positive change on the condition that humans work to achieve such change. [ 61 ]

[ edit ] Anarchism

Anarchism is generally defined as a political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful, [ 62 ] [ 63 ] [ 64 ] or, alternatively, as opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] Proponents of anarchism, known as "anarchists", advocate stateless societies based on voluntary associations . [ 72 ] [ 73 ] It includes proponents of both individualist anarchism and social anarchism . Mutualists advocate free-market socialism, collectivist anarchists workers cooperatives and salaries based on the amount of time contributed to production, anarcho-communists advocate a direct transition from capitalism to libertarian communism and anarcho-syndicalists worker's direct action and the general strike .

[ editar ] El socialismo libertario

Libertarian socialism is a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic, stateless society without private property in the means of production . Libertarian socialists oppose all coercive forms of social organisation, promote free association in place of government, and oppose the coercive social relations of capitalism, such as wage labor . They oppose hierarchical leadership structures, such as vanguard parties, and most are opposed to using the state to create socialism . Currents within libertarian socialism include Marxist tendencies such as left communism , council communism and autonomism , as well as non-Marxist movements such as social anarchism , Communalism , Participism , and Inclusive Democracy .

[ edit ] Democratic socialism

Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to propagate the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. Many democratic socialists support social democracy as a temporary measure to reform the current system, but others support more revolutionary tactics to establish socialism. Conversely, modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative reform of capitalism in order to make it more equitable and humane, while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is either completely forgotten or redefined in a pro-capitalist way. The two movements are widely similar both in terminology and in ideology, although there are a few key differences.

The major difference between social democracy and democratic socialism is the object of their politics: contemporary social democrats support a welfare state and unemployment insurance as a means to "humanize" capitalism, whereas democratic socialists seek to replace capitalism with a socialist economic system, arguing that any attempt to "humanize" capitalism through regulations and welfare policies would distort the market and create economic contradictions. [ 74 ]

Democratic socialism generally refers to any political movement that seeks to establish an economy based on economic democracy by and for the working class. Democratic socialists oppose democratic centralism and the revolutionary vanguard party of Leninism . Democratic socialism is difficult to define, and groups of scholars have radically different definitions for the term. Some definitions simply refer to all forms of socialism that follow an electoral, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism, rather than a revolutionary one. [ 75 ]

[ edit ] Leninism

Vladimir Lenin, 1921

"We want to achieve a new and better order of society: in this new and better society there must be neither rich nor poor; all will have to work. Not a handful of rich people, but all the working people must enjoy the fruits of their common labour. Machines and other improvements must serve to ease the work of all and not to enable a few to grow rich at the expense of millions and tens of millions of people. This new and better society is called socialist society . The teachings about this society are called 'socialism'.“
-Vladimir Lenin, "To the Rural Poor" (1903) ; Collected Works , Vol 6, p. 366

Leninism is the revolutionary theories developed by Vladimir Lenin , including the organizational principles of democratic centralism , Vanguardism and the political theory of imperialism. Leninist theory postulates that, with the strongly determined will of the Bourgeoisie to establish Imperialism , socialism will not arise spontaneously through the natural decay of capitalism, and that workers by themselves, who may be more or less sedated by reactionary propaganda, are unable to effectively organise and develop socialist consciousness , therefore requiring the leadership of a revolutionary vanguard organized on the basis of democratic centralism . As a result, Leninism promotes a Vanguard party in order to lead the working-class and peasants in a revolution. Because this revolution takes place in underdeveloped, largely pre-capitalist countries such as Russia, Leninism establishes a single-party, authoritarian state, justifying single-party control over the state and economy as a means to safeguard the revolution against counter-revolutionary insurrection and foreign invasion. [ 76 ]

Although the creation of a vanguard party was outlined by Marx and Engels in Chapter II: "Proletarians and Communists" of The Communist Manifesto , Lenin modified this position by changing the role of the vanguards to professional revolutionaries , who were to hold power post-revolution and direct the national economy and society in developing world socialism.

After disposing of the Bourgeois dictatorship through socialist revolution , Leninists seek to create a socialist state in which the working class would be in power, which they see as being essential for laying the foundations for a transitional withering of the state towards communism (Stateless society). In this state, the vanguard party would act as a central nucleus in the organisation of socialist society, presiding over a single-party political system. Leninism rejects political pluralism , seeing it as divisive and destructive. Instead, Leninism advocates the concept of democratic centralism as a process to ensure the voicing of concern and disagreement and to refine policy. Generally, the purpose of democratic centralism is "diversity in ideas, unity in action."

Leninist revolutionary theory alongside Marxist economic theory forms the ideology of Marxism-Leninism . After Lenin's death in 1924, Leninism branched into multiple (sometimes opposing) interpretations, including Trotskyism , Stalinism , and Maoism .

[ edit ] Religious socialism

Christian socialism is a broad concept involving an intertwining of the Christian religion with the politics and economic theories of socialism.

Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism. Muslim socialists believe that the teachings of the Qur'an and Muhammad are compatible with principles of equality and public ownership drawing inspiration from the early Medina welfare state established by the Prophet Muhammad . Muslim Socialists are more conservative than their western contemporaries and find their roots in Anti-imperialism , anti-colonialism and Arab nationalism . Islamic Socialist leaders believe in Democracy and deriving legitimacy from public mandate as opposed to religious texts.

Buddhist Socialism is another concept that seeks to reduce unnecessary consumption and create harmony while ensuring everyone's basic needs are met. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Social democracy

Social democracy is not itself a socialist system. Rather, traditional social democrats advocated the creation of socialism through political reforms by operating within the existing political system of capitalism. The social democratic movement sought to elect socialists to political office to implement reforms. The modern social democratic movement has abandoned [ citation needed ] the goal of moving toward a socialist economy and instead advocates for social reforms to improve capitalism, such as a welfare state and unemployment benefits. It is best demonstrated by the economic format which has been used in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland in the past few decades. [ 77 ] This approach has been called the Nordic model .

In the late 20th century, the term "socialist" became used by Third Way social democrats to refer to a set of ethical ideals and values as opposed to a form of socio-economic system. It is used in this way by Anthony Giddens , who rejects conventional definitions and implementations of socialism. [ 9 ] Giddens states: "The only common characteristic of socialist doctrines is their ethical content." and says that "Socialism is the pursuit of ideas of social cooperation, universal welfare, and equality - ideas brought together by a condemnation of the evils and injustices of capitalism". [ 9 ] However Gidden's Third Way has faced condemnation by left-wing opponents, including anti-Third Way social democrats who denounce Giddens' Third Way for being anti-socialist and pro-capitalist in practice. [ 78 ]

[ edit ] Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a social movement that operates through industrial trade unions and rejects state socialism and the use of establishment politics to establish or promote socialism. They reject using state power to construct a socialist society, favoring strategies such as the General strike . Syndicalists advocate a socialist economy based on federated unions or syndicates of workers who own and manage the means of production.

Some Marxist currents advocate Syndicalism, such as DeLeonism .

[ editar ] Historia

The term socialism is attributed to Pierre Leroux , [ 79 ] and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud ; and in Britain to Robert Owen in 1827, father of the cooperative movement . [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. Mazdak , a Persian communal proto-socialist, [ 82 ] instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good. And it has been claimed, though controversially, that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato [ 83 ] and Aristotle . [ 84 ]

The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based upon individual talent. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term socialism . [ 85 ] Saint-Simon was fascinated by the enormous potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism and would be based upon equal opportunities. [ 86 ] [ unreliable source? ] He advocated the creation of a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work. [ 85 ] The key focus of Saint-Simon's socialism was on administrative efficiency and industrialism, and a belief that science was the key to progress. [ 87 ]

Charles Fourier , influential early French socialist thinker

This was accompanied by a desire to implement a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress, [ 85 ] and thus embodied a desire for a more directed or planned economy . Other early socialist thinkers, such as Thomas Hodgkin and Charles Hall, based their ideas on David Ricardo 's economic theories. They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated to prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply, and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour – the cost of the labour (essentially the wages paid) that was required to produce the commodities. The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value. [ 88 ]

West European social critics, including Robert Owen , Charles Fourier , Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , Louis Blanc , Charles Hall and Saint-Simon , were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution . They advocated reform, with some such as Robert Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property. Robert Owen's contribution to modern socialism was his understanding that actions and characteristics of individuals were largely determined by the social environment they were raised in and exposed to. [ 87 ] On the other hand Charles Fourier advocated phalansteres which were communities that respected individual desires (including sexual preferences), affinities and creativity and saw that work has to be made enjoyable for people. [ 89 ] The ideas of Owen and Fourier were tried in practice in numerous intentional communities around Europe and the American continent in the mid-19th century.

Linguistically, the contemporary connotation of the words socialism and communism accorded with the adherents' and opponents' cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, of the two, communism was believed the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite , hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists. [ 90 ]

Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when the Communist Manifesto was published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not." The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered "respectable" socialists, while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany. [ 91 ]

[ editar ] Etimología

The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon , a founder of utopian socialism. The term "socialism" was created to contrast against the liberal doctrine of " individualism ". [ 92 ] The original socialists condemned liberal individualism as failing to address social concerns of poverty, social oppression, and gross inequality of wealth. [ 92 ] They viewed liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism and that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. [ 92 ] They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism, that advocated a society based on cooperation. [ 92 ]

[ edit ] First International and Second International

Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the IWA at the Basel Congress in 1869

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), also known as the First International, was founded in London in 1864. The IWA held a preliminary conference in 1865, and had its first congress at Geneva in 1866. Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start. The first objections to Marx's came from the Mutualists who opposed communism and statism . However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers (called Collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads. [ 93 ] The clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas.

As the ideas of Marx and Engels took on flesh, particularly in central Europe, socialists sought to unite in an international organisation. In 1889, on the centennial of the French Revolution of 1789, the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from 20 countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations. [ 94 ] It was termed the "Socialist International" and Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893. Anarchists were ejected and not allowed in mainly because of the pressure from marxists. [ 95 ]

[ edit ] Revolutions of 1917–1936

Leon Trotsky , Vladimir Lenin , and Lev Kamenev at the Second Communist Party Congress, 1919.
" If Socialism can only be realized when the intellectual development of all the people permits it, then we shall not see Socialism for at least five hundred years. "

Vladimir Lenin , November 1917 [ 96 ]

By 1917, the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in most of Europe, the United States , and Australia. In February 1917, revolution exploded in Russia . Workers, soldiers and peasants established soviets (councils), the monarchy fell, and a provisional government convoked pending the election of a constituent assembly .

In April of that year, Vladimir Lenin arrived in Russia from Switzerland, calling for "All power to the soviets." In October, after his party, the Bolsheviks , had seized power in an October Revolution it won support of most soviets at the second All-Russian Congress of Soviets . As a matter of political pragmatism, Lenin reversed Marx's order of economics over politics, allowing for a political revolution led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries rather than a spontaneous establishment of socialist institutions led by a spontaneous uprising of the working class as predicted by Karl Marx . [ 97 ] On 25 January 1918, at the Petrograd Soviet , Lenin declared "Long live the world socialist revolution!" [ 98 ] He proposed an immediate armistice on all fronts, and transferred the land of the landed proprietors, the crown and the monasteries to the peasant committees without compensation. [ 99 ]

On 26 January 1918, the day after assuming executive power, Lenin wrote Draft Regulations on Workers' Control , which granted workers control of businesses with more than five workers and office employees, and access to all books, documents and stocks, and whose decisions were to be "binding upon the owners of the enterprises". [ 100 ] Governing through the elected soviets, and in alliance with the peasant-based Left Socialist-Revolutionaries , the Bolshevik government began nationalising banks, industry, and disavowed the national debts of the deposed Romanov royal régime. It sued for peace , withdrawing from World War I, and convoked a Constituent Assembly in which the peasant Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SR) won a majority. [ 101 ]

The Constituent Assembly elected Socialist-Revolutionary leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers' control, and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists, [ 102 ] and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it. [ 103 ] [ 104 ]

The Bolshevik Russian Revolution of January 1918 engendered Communist parties worldwide, and their concomitant revolutions of 1917-23 . Few Communists doubted that the Russian success of socialism depended upon successful, working-class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] In 1919, Lenin and Trotsky organised the world's Communist parties into a new international association of workers – the Communist International , (Comintern), also called the Third International.

Rosa Luxemburg , prominent Marxist revolutionary, martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising , 1919.

By 1920, the Red Army , under its commander Trotsky, had largely defeated the royalist White Armies. In 1921, War Communism was ended and, under the New Economic Policy (NEP), private ownership was allowed for small and medium peasant enterprises. While industry remained largely state-controlled, Lenin acknowledged that the NEP was a necessary capitalist measure for a country unripe for socialism. Profiteering returned in the form of "NEP men" and rich peasants ( Kulaks ) gained power in the countryside. [ 107 ]

In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the United Front , urging Communists to work with rank and file Social Democrats while remaining critical of their leaders, whom they criticised for betraying the working class by supporting the war efforts of their respective capitalist classes. For their part, the social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution, and later, the growing authoritarianism of the Communist Parties. When the Communist Party of Great Britain applied to affiliate to the Labour Party in 1920 it was turned down.

In 1923, on seeing the Soviet State's growing coercive power, the dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to "a bourgeois tsarist machine... barely varnished with socialism." [ 108 ] After Lenin's death in January 1924, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin – rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union, in favour of the concept of Socialism in One Country . Despite the marginalised Left Opposition 's demand for the restoration of Soviet democracy, Stalin developed a bureaucratic, authoritarian government, that was condemned by democratic socialists, anarchists and Trotskyists for undermining the initial socialist ideals of the Bolshevik Russian Revolution. [ 109 ] [ 110 ] [ self-published source? ] [ unreliable source? ]

The Russian Revolution of October 1917 brought about the definitive ideological division between Communists as denoted with a capital "С" on the one hand and other communist and socialist trends such as anarcho-communists and social democrats, on the other. The Left Opposition in the Soviet Union gave rise to Trotskyism which was to remain isolated and insignificant for another fifty years, except in Sri Lanka, where Trotskyism gained the majority and the pro-Moscow wing was expelled from the Communist Party.

[ editar ] Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Joseph Stalin , leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1953.

In 1951, British Health Minister Aneurin Bevan expressed the view that, "It is probably true that Western Europe would have gone socialist after the war if Soviet behaviour had not given it too grim a visage. Soviet Communism and Socialism are not yet sufficiently distinguished in many minds." [ 111 ]

In 1951, the Socialist International was re-founded by the European social democratic parties. It declared: "Communism has split the International Labour Movement and has set back the realisation of Socialism in many countries for decades... Communism falsely claims a share in the Socialist tradition. In fact it has distorted that tradition beyond recognition. It has built up a rigid theology which is incompatible with the critical spirit of Marxism." [ 112 ]

In the postwar years, socialism became increasingly influential throughout the so-called Third World . Countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America frequently nationalised industries held by foreign owners. The Soviet Union had become a superpower through its adoption of a planned economy, albeit at enormous human cost. This achievement seemed hugely impressive from the outside, and convinced many nationalists in the former colonies, not necessarily communists or even socialists, of the virtues of state planning and state-guided models of social development.

[ edit ] Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Prior to its dissolution in 1991, the USSR had the second largest economy in the world after the United States. [ 113 ] The economy of the Soviet Union was the modern world's first centrally planned economy. It was based on a system of state ownership of industry managed through Gosplan (the State Planning Commission), Gosbank (the State Bank) and the Gossnab (State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply). Economic planning was conducted through a series of Five-Year Plans . The emphasis was put on a very fast development of heavy industry and the nation became one of the world's top manufacturers of a large number of basic and heavy industrial products, but it lagged behind in the output of light industrial production and consumer durables.

As the Soviet economy grew more complex, it required more and more complex disaggregation of control figures (plan targets) and factory inputs. As it required more communication between the enterprises and the planning ministries, and as the number of enterprises, trusts, and ministries multiplied, the Soviet economy started stagnating. The Soviet economy was increasingly sluggish when it came to responding to change, adapting cost−saving technologies, and providing incentives at all levels to improve growth, productivity and efficiency.

Most information in the Soviet economy flowed from the top down and economic planning was often done based on faulty or outdated information, particularly in sectors with large numbers of consumers. As a result, some goods tended to be under-produced, leading to shortages, while other goods were overproduced and accumulated in storage. Some factories developed a system of barter and either exchanged or shared raw materials and parts, while consumers developed a black market for goods that were particularly sought after but constantly under-produced.

Conceding the weaknesses of their past approaches in solving new problems, the leaders of the late 1980s, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev , were seeking to mould a program of economic reform to galvanise the economy. However, by 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions. Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies to continue operations.

The industrial production system in the Soviet Union suffered a political and economic collapse in 1991, after which two transitions occurred: first from centrally planned to market-based economies, and secondly, from state-ownership to private-ownership of economic enterprises. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved, and overall industrial activity declined substantially. [ 114 ] A lasting legacy remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices.

[ edit ] Social democrats in power

The Australian Labor Party , the first social democratic labour party in the world, was formed in 1891. In 1904, Australians elected the first Labor Party prime minister in the world: Chris Watson. In 1945, the British Labour Party , led by Clement Attlee , was elected to office based upon a radical socialist programme. Social Democratic parties dominated post-war politics in countries such as France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway. In Sweden, the Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976, 1982 to 1991, and 1994 to 2006. At one point, France claimed to be the world's most state-controlled capitalist country. The nationalised public utilities included Charbonnages de France (CDF), Electricité de France (EDF), Gaz de France (GDF), Air France, Banque de France, and Régie Nationale des Usines Renault. [ 115 ] Post-World War II social democratic governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via state welfare and taxation.

[ editar ] Reino Unido
Clement Attlee , UK Prime Minister, Labour Party government, 1945–51.

In the UK, the Labour Party was influenced by the British social reformer William Beveridge , who had identified five "Giant Evils" afflicting the working class of the pre-war period: "want" (poverty), disease, "ignorance" (lack of access to education), "squalor" ( poor housing ), and "idleness" (unemployment). [ 116 ] Unemployment benefits , national insurance and state pensions were introduced by the 1945 Labour government. Aneurin Bevan , who had introduced the Labour Party's National Health Service in 1948, criticised the Attlee government for not progressing further, demanding economic planning and criticising the implementation of nationalisation for not empowering the workers with democratic control of operations.

The UK Labour Government nationalised major public utilities such as mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron, steel, and the Bank of England. British Petroleum, privatised in 1987, was officially nationalised in 1951, [ 117 ] and there was further government intervention during the 1974–79 Labour Government [ 118 ] Anthony Crosland said that in 1956, 25 per cent of British industry was nationalised, and that public employees, including those in nationalised industries, constituted a similar percentage of the country's total employed population. [ 119 ] The Labour government, however, did not seek to end capitalism, and the "government had not the smallest intention of bringing in the 'common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange'", [ 120 ] Labour re-nationalised steel (1967, British Steel) after the Conservatives denationalised it, and nationalised car production (1976, British Leyland). [ 121 ] In 1977, major aircraft companies and shipbuilding were nationalised.

The National Health Service provided taxpayer-funded health care to everyone, free at the point of service. [ 122 ] Working-class housing was provided in council housing estates, and university education became available via a school grant system. Ellen Wilkinson , Minister for Education, introduced taxpayer-funded milk in schools, saying, in a 1946 Labour Party conference: "Free milk will be provided in Hoxton and Shoreditch , in Eton and Harrow . What more social equality can you have than that?" Clement Attlee's biographer argued that this policy "contributed enormously to the defeat of childhood illnesses resulting from bad diet. Generations of poor children grew up stronger and healthier, because of this one, small, and inexpensive act of generosity, by the Attlee government". [ 123 ]

[ edit ] The "Nordic model"

The Nordic model refers to the economic and social models of the Nordic countries ( Denmark , Iceland , Norway , Sweden and Finland ). This particular adaptation of the mixed market economy is characterised by more generous welfare states (relative to other developed countries), which are aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilising the economy. It is distinguished from other welfare states with similar goals by its emphasis on maximising labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, large magnitude of redistribution, and liberal use of expansionary fiscal policy. [ 124 ] This has included high degrees of labour union membership. In 2008, labour union density was 67.5% in Finland, 67.6% in Denmark, and 68.3% in Sweden. In comparison, union membership was 11.9% in the United States and 7.7% in France. [ 125 ] The Nordic Model, however, is not a single model with specific components or rules; each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours.

[ edit ] Social democrats adopt free market policies

Many social democratic parties, particularly after the Cold war, adopted neoliberal -based market policies that include privatisation , liberalisation , deregulation and financialisation ; resulting in the abandonment of pursuing the development of moderate socialism in favour of market liberalism . Despite the name, these pro-capitalist policies are radically different from the many non-capitalist free-market socialist theories that have existed throughout history.

In 1959, the German Social Democratic Party adopted the Godesberg Program , rejecting class struggle and Marxism. In 1980, with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the US, Margaret Thatcher in Britain, and Brian Mulroney in Canada, the Western welfare state was attacked from within. Monetarists and neoliberalism attacked social welfare systems as impediments to private entrepreneurship at public expense.

In the 1980s and 1990s, western European socialists were pressured to reconcile their socialist economic programmes with a free-market-based communal European economy. In the UK, the Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock made a passionate and public attack against the party's Militant Tendency at a Labour Party conference, and repudiated the demands of the defeated striking miners after the 1984–1985 strike against pit closures . In 1989, at Stockholm, the 18th Congress of the Socialist International adopted a new Declaration of Principles , saying:

Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice, and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents, and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society . [ 126 ]

In the 1990s, released from the Left's pressure, the British Labour Party, under Tony Blair , posited policies based upon the free market economy to deliver public services via private contractors. In 1995, the Labour Party re-defined its stance on socialism by re-wording clause IV of its constitution, effectively rejecting socialism by removing any and all references to public, direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production. In 1995, the British Labour Party revised its political aims: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that, by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create, for each of us, the means to realise our true potential, and, for all of us, a community in which power, wealth, and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few." [ 127 ]

The objectives of the Party of European Socialists , the European Parliament's socialist bloc, are now "to pursue international aims in respect of the principles on which the European Union is based, namely principles of freedom, equality, solidarity, democracy, respect of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and respect for the Rule of Law." As a result, today, the rallying cry of the French Revolution – "Egalité, Liberté, Fraternité" – which overthrew absolutism and ushered industrialisation into French society, are promoted as essential socialist values. [ 128 ]

[ edit ] Early 2000s

Those who championed socialism in its various Marxist and class struggle forms sought out other arenas than the parties of social democracy at the turn of the 21st century. Anti-capitalism and anti-globalization movements rose to prominence particularly through events such as the opposition to the WTO meeting of 1999 in Seattle. Socialist-inspired groups played an important role in these new movements, which nevertheless embraced much broader layers of the population, and were championed by figures such as Noam Chomsky . The 2003 invasion of Iraq led to a significant anti-war movement in which socialists argued their case.

The Financial crisis of 2007–2010 led to mainstream discussions as to whether "Marx was right". [ 129 ] [ 130 ] Time magazine ran an article 'Rethinking Marx' and put Karl Marx on the cover of its European edition in a special for the 28 January 2009 Davos meeting . [ 131 ] [ 132 ] A Globescan BBC poll on the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (2009) found that 23% of respondents believe capitalism is "fatally flawed and a different economic system is needed", with that figure rising to over 40% of the population in France; while a majority of respondents including over 50% of Americans believe capitalism "has problems that can be addressed through regulation and reform". Of the 27 countries polled, majorities in 22 of them expressed support for governments to distribute wealth more evenly. [ 133 ]

[ editar ] África

Kwame Nkrumah , the first President of Ghana and theorist of African socialism on a soviet postage stamp

African socialism has been and continues to be a major ideology around the continent. Julius Nyerere was inspired by Fabian socialist ideals. [ 134 ] He was a firm believer in rural Africans and their traditions and ujamaa , a system of collectivisation that according to Nyerere was present before European imperialism. Essentially he believed Africans were already socialists. Other African socialists include Jomo Kenyatta , Kenneth Kaunda , and Kwame Nkrumah . Fela Kuti was inspired by socialism and called for a democratic African republic. In South Africa the African National Congress (ANC) abandoned its partial socialist allegiances after taking power, and followed a standard neoliberal route. From 2005 through to 2007, the country was wracked by many thousands of protests from poor communities. One of these gave rise to a mass movement of shack dwellers, Abahlali baseMjondolo that, despite major police suppression, continues to work for popular people's planning and against the creation of a market economy in land and housing. Today many African countries have been accused of being exploited under neoliberal economics.

In his classic, "How Europe Underdeveloped Africa" Walter Rodney says that Africa`s development can only be possible through its delinking with international capitalism and embracing a socialist template.

[ 135 ]

[ editar ] Asia

The People's Republic of China, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam are Asian countries remaining from the wave of Marxism-Leninist implemented socialism in the 20th century. States with socialist economies have largely moved away from centralised economic planning in the 21st century, placing a greater emphasis on markets. Forms include the Chinese socialist market economy and the Vietnamese socialist-oriented market economy . They utilise state-owned corporate management models as opposed to modelling socialist enterprise on traditional management styles employed by government agencies.

In the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Communist Party has led a transition from the command economy of the Mao period to an economic program they term the socialist market economy or " socialism with Chinese characteristics ". Under Deng Xiaoping , the leadership of China embarked upon a programme of market-based reform that was more sweeping than had been Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika program of the late 1980s. Deng's programme, however, maintained state ownership rights over land, state or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing sectors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors.

Elsewhere in Asia, some elected socialist parties and communist parties remain prominent, particularly in India and Nepal. The Communist Party of Nepal in particular calls for multi-party democracy, social equality, and economic prosperity. [ 136 ] In Singapore, a majority of the GDP is still generated from the state sector comprising government-linked companies. [ 137 ] In Japan, there has been a resurgent interest in the Japanese Communist Party among workers and youth. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] In Malaysia, the Socialist Party of Malaysia got its first Member of Parliament, Dr. Jeyakumar Devaraj , after the 2008 general election .

[ editar ] Europa

In Europe, the socialist Left Party in Germany grew in popularity [ 140 ] due to dissatisfaction with the increasingly neoliberal policies of the SPD, becoming the fourth biggest party in parliament in the general election on 27 September 2009. [ 141 ] Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in Cyprus, defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53%. [ 142 ] In Greece, in the general election on 17 June 2012, Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza) won 26.89% of the votes and became the second largest party in parliament.

In Ireland, in the 2009 European election , Joe Higgins of the Socialist Party took one of three seats in the capital Dublin European constituency . In Denmark, the Socialist People's Party (SF or Socialist Party for short) more than doubled its parliamentary representation to 23 seats from 11, making it the fourth largest party. [ 143 ] In 2011, the socialist parties of Social Democrats , Socialist People's Party and the Danish Social Liberal Party formed government, after a slight victory over the liberal parties. They were led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and had the Red-Green Alliance as a supporting party.

In the UK, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers put forward a slate of candidates in the 2009 European Parliament elections under the banner of No to EU – Yes to Democracy , a broad left-wing alter-globalisation coalition involving socialist groups such as the Socialist Party , aiming to offer an alternative to the "anti-foreigner" and pro-business policies of the UK Independence Party . [ 144 ] [ 145 ] [ 146 ] In the following May 2010 UK general election, the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition , launched in January 2010 [ 147 ] and backed by Bob Crow, the leader of the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers union (RMT), other union leaders and the Socialist Party among other socialist groups, stood against Labour in 40 constituencies. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition plans to contest the 2011 elections, having gained the endorsement of the RMT June 2010 conference. [ 150 ]

In France, the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) candidate in the 2007 presidential election, Olivier Besancenot , received 1,498,581 votes, 4.08%, double that of the Communist candidate. [ 151 ] The LCR abolished itself in 2009 to initiate a broad anti-capitalist party, the New Anticapitalist Party , whose stated aim is to "build a new socialist, democratic perspective for the twenty-first century". [ 152 ]

[ edit ] Latin America

Hugo Chávez , president of Venezuela.
"Every factory must be a school to educate, like Che Guevara said, to produce not only briquettes, steel, and aluminum, but also, above all, the new man and woman, the new society, the socialist society."
Hugo Chávez , at a May 2009 socialist transformation workshop [ 153 ]

Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez , Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega , Bolivian President Evo Morales , and Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa refer to their political programmes as socialist. Chávez has adopted the term socialism of the 21st century . After winning re-election in December 2006, Chávez said, "Now more than ever, I am obliged to move Venezuela's path towards socialism." [ 154 ] Hugo Chávez was also reelected in October 2012 for his third six-year term as President.

" Pink tide " is a term being used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception that Leftist ideology in general, and Left-wing politics in particular, are increasingly influential in Latin America. [ 155 ] [ 156 ] [ 157 ]

[ editar ] América del Norte

In Canada, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation , the precursor to the New Democratic Party , had some significant success in provincial politics. In 1944, the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first socialist government in North America. On the federal level, the social democratic New Democratic Party now forms the Official Opposition (Canada) after winning 103/308 seats [ 158 ] (up from 37) in the 2011 Canadian federal election .

Socialist parties in the United States reached their peak in the early 20th century. Current active parties and organisations include the Socialist Party USA , the Socialist Workers Party and the Democratic Socialists of America , the latter having approximately 10,000 members. [ 159 ]

[ edit ] Criticism of socialism

Economic liberals and pro-capitalist libertarians see private ownership of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights, which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty; they therefore perceive public ownership of the means of production, cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty. Some of the primary criticisms of socialism are claims that it creates distorted or absent price signals , [ 160 ] [ 161 ] results in reduced incentives, [ 162 ] [ 163 ] [ 164 ] causes reduced prosperity, [ 165 ] [ 166 ] has low feasibility, [ 160 ] [ 161 ] [ 167 ] and that it has negative social and political effects. [ 168 ] [ 169 ] [ 170 ] [ 171 ] [ 172 ]

Critics from the neoclassical school of economics criticise state-ownership and centralisation of capital on the grounds that there is a lack of incentive in state institutions to act on information as efficiently as capitalist firms do because they lack hard budget constraints , resulting in reduced overall economic welfare for society. [ 173 ] Economists of the Austrian school argue that socialist systems based on economic planning are unfeasible because they lack the information to perform economic calculation in the first place, due to a lack of price signals and a free price system , which they argue are required for rational economic calculation. [ 174 ]

[ editar ] Véase también

[ editar ] Referencias

  1. ^ socialism Britannica ACADEMIC EDITION. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  2. ^ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2 . Routledge . p. 71. ISBN 0-415-24187-1 . "In order of increasing decentralization (at least) three forms of socialized ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity."
  3. ^ Peter Lamb, JC Docherty. Historical dictionary of socialism . Lanham, Maryland, UK; Oxford, England, UK: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2006. p. 1.
  4. ^ Nove, Alec. Socialism . New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008): http://www.dictionaryofeconomics.com/article?id=pde2008_S000173
  5. ^ "Socialism and Capitalism: Are They Qualitatively Different Socioeconomic Systems?", by Kotz, David M. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from University of Massachusetts: http://people.umass.edu/dmkotz/Soc_and_Cap_Diff_Syst_06_12.pdf : "This understanding of socialism was held not just by revolutionary Marxist socialists but also by evolutionary socialists, Christian socialists, and even anarchists. At that time, there was also wide agreement about the basic institutions of the future socialist system: public ownership instead of private ownership of the means of production, economic planning instead of market forces, production for use instead of for profit."
  6. ^ Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists , by Schweickart, David; Lawler, James; Ticktin, Hillel; Ollman, Bertell. 1998. From "The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism" (P.61-63): "More fundamentally, a socialist society must be one in which the economy is run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs...Exchange-value, prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist society or in any market. There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare. Under conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology ... It seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use-value of a good quality when trying to make more money than the next capitalist. It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use-values in a rational way, which because there is no duplication, would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality."
  7. ^ Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism . Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7566-3 .
  8. ^ Gasper, Phillip (October 2005). The Communist Manifesto: a road map to history's most important political document . Haymarket Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-931859-25-6 . "As the nineteenth century progressed, "socialist" came to signify not only concern with the social question, but opposition to capitalism and support for some form of social ownership."
  9. ^ a b c Anthony Giddens. Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics . 1998 edition. Cambridge, England, UK: Polity Press, 1994, 1998. Pp. 71.
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    Upon what point are orthodox political economy and socialism in absolute conflict? Political economy has held and holds that the economic laws governing the production and distribution of wealth which it has established are natural laws ... not in the sense that they are laws naturally determined by the condition of the social organism (which would be correct), but that they are absolute laws, that is to say that they apply to humanity at all times and in all places, and consequently, that they are immutable in their principal points, though they may be subject to modification in details. Scientific socialism holds, the contrary, that the laws established by classical political economy, since the time of Adam Smith, are laws peculiar to the present period in the history of civilized humanity, and that they are, consequently, laws essentially relative to the period of their analysis and discovery.

  11. ^ "Socialism" . Socialism . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009 . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/551569/socialism . Retrieved 14 October 2009 . "Socialists complain that capitalism necessarily leads to unfair and exploitative concentrations of wealth and power in the hands of the relative few who emerge victorious from free-market competition—people who then use their wealth and power to reinforce their dominance in society."
  12. ^ Marx and Engels Selected Works, Lawrence and Wishart, 1968, p. 40. Capitalist property relations put a "fetter" on the productive forces.
  13. ^ Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism . Stanford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8047-7566-3 . "According to nineteenth-century socialist views, socialism would function without capitalist economic categories - such as money, prices, interest, profits and rent - and thus would function according to laws other than those described by current economic science. While some socialists recognized the need for money and prices at least during the transition from capitalism to socialism, socialists more commonly believed that the socialist economy would soon administratively mobilize the economy in physical units without the use of prices or money."
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  15. ^ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2 . Routledge . p. 70. ISBN 0-415-24187-1 . "Market socialism is a general designation for a number of models of economic systems. On the one hand, the market mechanism is utilized to distribute economic output, to organize production and to allocate factor inputs. On the other hand, the economic surplus accrues to society at large rather than to a class of private (capitalist) owners, through some form of collective, public or social ownership of capital."
  16. ^ "Excerpt from Commanding Heights" . Amazon.com . http://www.amazon.com/dp/product-description/068483569X . Retrieved 30 November 2010 .
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  18. ^ Leon Trotsky - The Revolution Betrayed. 1936 Full Text. Chapter 4: "Having lost its ability to bring happiness or trample men in the dust, money will turn into mere bookkeeping receipts for the convenience of statisticians and for planning purposes. In the still more distant future, probably these receipts will not be needed."
  19. ^ Why Socialism? by Albert Einstein , Monthly Review , May 1949
  20. ^ Gregory and Stuart, Paul and Robert (2004). Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century, Seventh Edition . George Hoffman. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-618-26181-8 .
  21. ^ Ericson, Richard E. "Command Economy". http://econ.la.psu.edu/~bickes/rickcommand.pdf
  22. ^ Nove, Alec (1991). The Economics of Feasible Socialism, Revisited . Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-0043350492 . "Several authors of the most diverse political views have stated that there is in fact no planning in the Soviet Union: Eugene Zaleski, J. Wilhelm, Hillel Ticktin. They all in their very different ways note the fact that plans are often (usually) unfulfilled, that information flows are distorted, that plan-instructions are the subject of bargaining, that there are many distortions and inconsistencies, indeed that (as many sources attest) plans are frequently altered within the period to which they are supposed to apply..."
  23. ^ Writings 1932–33, P.96 , Leon Trotsky.
  24. ^ "State Capitalism versus Communism: What happened in the USSR and Consultado el 19 de septiembre de 2012.
  25. ^ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2 . Routledge. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-415-24187-1 . "One finds favorable opinions of cooperatives also among other great economists of the past, such as, for example, John Stuart Mill and Alfred Marshall...In eliminating the domination of capital over labor, firms run by workers eliminate capitalist exploitation and reduce alienation."
  26. ^ Vanek, Jaroslav, The Participatory Economy (Ithaca, NY.: Cornell University Press, 1971).
  27. ^ ":::::CYBERSYN/Cybernetic Synergy::::" . Cybersyn.cl . http://www.cybersyn.cl/ingles/cybersyn/cybernet.html . Consultado el 30 de octubre de 2011.
  28. ^ Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel , The Political Economy of Participatory Economics (Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1991).
  29. ^ "Participatory Planning Through Negotiated Coordination" (PDF) . http://gesd.free.fr/devine.pdf . Consultado el 30 de octubre de 2011.
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  31. ^ From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms Alan James Mayne Published 1999 Greenwood Publishing Group 316 pages ISBN 0-275-96151-6 . Google Libros. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2010.
  32. ^ Anarchism for Know-It-Alls . Filiquarian Publishing. 2008. ISBN 978-1-59986-218-7 . http://books.google.com/?id=jeiudz5sBV4C&pg=PA14 . Retrieved 20 September 2010 .
  33. ^ Estrin, Saul. 1991. "Yugoslavia: The Case of Self-Managing Market Socialism." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(4): 187–194.
  34. ^ Beckett, Francis, Clem Attlee , (2007) Politico's.
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  37. ^ Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century , 2003, by Gregory and Stuart. ISBN 0-618-26181-8 . (P.142): "It is an economic system that combines social ownership of capital with market allocation of capital...The state owns the means of production, and returns accrue to society at large."
  38. ^ Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism . Stanford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8047-7566-3 . "For Walras, socialism would provide the necessary institutions for free competition and social justice. Socialism, in Walras's view, entailed state ownership of land and natural resources and the abolition of income taxes. As owner of land and natural resources, the state could then lease these resources to many individuals and groups, which would eliminate monopolies and thus enable free competition. The leasing of land and natural resources would also provide enough state revenue to make income taxes unnecessary, allowing a worker to invest his savings and become 'an owner or capitalist at the same time that he remains a worker."
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  45. ^ http://ufirc.ou.edu/publications/Enterprises%20of%20China.pdf
  46. ^ "China grows faster amid worries" . BBC News . 16 July 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8153138.stm . Retrieved 7 April 2010 .
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  48. ^ a b Karl Marx, Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, 1859
  49. ^ Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century , 2003, by Gregory and Stuart. P.62, Marx's Theory of Change . ISBN 0-618-26181-8 .
  50. ^ Schaff, Kory (2001). Philosophy and the problems of work: a reader . Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 224 . ISBN 0-7425-0795-5 .
  51. ^ Walicki, Andrzej (1995). Marxism and the leap to the kingdom of freedom: the rise and fall of the Communist utopia . Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-8047-2384-2 .
  52. ^ "At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria" speech by Che Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Algiers, Algeria on 24 February 1965
  53. ^ The life of Thorstein Veblen and perspectives on his thought, Wood, John (1993). The life of Thorstein Veblen and perspectives on his thought . introd. Thorstein Veblen. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07487-8 . "The decisive difference between Marx and Veblen lay in their respective attitudes on socialism. For while Marx regarded socialism as the ultimate goal for civilization, Veblen saw socialism as but one stage in the economic evolution of society."
  54. ^ John Medearis, "Schumpeter, the New Deal, and Democracy", The American Political Science Review , 1997.
  55. ^ An Outline on the History of Economic Thought, Screpanti and Zamagni (2005). An Outline on the History of Economic Thought (2nd ed.). Oxford. "It should not be forgotten, however, that in the period of the Second International, some of the reformist currents of Marxism, as well as some of the extreme left-wing ones, not to speak of the anarchist groups, had already criticised the view that State ownership and central planning is the best road to socialism. But with the victory of Leninism in Russia, all dissent was silenced, and socialism became identified with 'democratic centralism', 'central planning', and State ownership of the means of production."
  56. ^ Schumpeter, Joseph (2008). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy . Harper Perennial. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-06-156161-0 . "But there are still others (concepts and institutions) which by virtue of their nature cannot stand transplantation and always carry the flavor of a particular institutional framework. It is extremely dangerous, in fact it amounts to a distortion of historical description, to use them beyond the social world or culture whose denizens they are. Now ownership or property -also, so I believe, taxation- are such denizens of the world of commercial society, exactly as knights and fiefs are denizens of the feudal world. But so is the state (a denizen of commercial society)."
  57. ^ Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto
  58. ^ Schaff, Adam, 'Marxist Theory on Revolution and Violence', p. 263. in Journal of the history of ideas, Vol 34, no.2 (Apr–Jun 1973)
  59. ^ Peter Lamb, JC Docherty. Historical dictionary of socialism . Lanham, Maryland, UK; Oxford, England, UK: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2006. pp. 1–3.
  60. ^ Peter Lamb, JC Docherty. Historical dictionary of socialism . Lanham, Maryland, UK; Oxford, England, UK: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2006. pp 1-2.
  61. ^ a b Peter Lamb, JC Docherty. Historical dictionary of socialism . Lanham, Maryland, UK; Oxford, England, UK: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2006. p. 2.
  62. ^ Malatesta, Errico . "Towards Anarchism" . MAN! (Los Angeles: International Group of San Francisco). OCLC 3930443 . http://www.marxists.org/archive/malatesta/1930s/xx/toanarchy.htm . Agrell, Siri (14 May 2007). "Working for The Man" . The Globe and Retrieved 14 April 2008 . "Anarchism" . Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. De 2006. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006 . http://web.archive.org/web/20061214085638/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9117285 . Retrieved 29 August 2006 . "Anarchism". The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy : 14. De 2005. "Anarchism is the view that a society without the state, or government, is both possible and desirable." The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Mclaughlin, Paul (2007). Anarchism and Authority . Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 59. ISBN 0-7546-6196-2 . Johnston, R. (2000). The Dictionary of Human Geography . Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 0-631-20561-6 .
  63. ^ Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics . Ed. Iain McLean y Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  64. ^ "Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short." Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. pg. 28
  65. ^ "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explred in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations-by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power- and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation." Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. pg. 1
  66. ^ "The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual." "Principles of The International of Anarchist Federations "
  67. ^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman . "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays .
  68. ^ Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism...Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." Benjamin Tucker . Individual Liberty.
  69. ^ Ward, Colin (1966). "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization" . Archived from the original on 25 March 2010 . http://web.archive.org/web/20100325081119/http://www.panarchy.org/ward/organization.1966.html . Retrieved 1 March 2010 .
  70. ^ Anarchist historian George Woodcock report of Mikhail Bakunin 's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (pg. 9)...Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
  71. ^ Brown, L. Susan (2002). "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism . Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. p. 106.
  72. ^ "ANARCHISM, a social philosophy that rejects authoritarian government and maintains that voluntary institutions are best suited to express man's natural social tendencies." George Woodcock. "Anarchism" at The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  73. ^ "In a society developed on these lines, the voluntary associations which already now begin to cover all the fields of human activity would take a still greater extension so as to substitute themselves for the state in all its functions." Peter Kropotkin . “Anarchism” from the Encyclopædia Britannica
  74. ^ Schweickart, David. Democratic Socialism . Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice (2006): http://orion.it.luc.edu/~dschwei/demsoc.htm : "Social democrats supported and tried to strengthen the basic institutions of the welfare state--pensions for all, public health care, public education, unemployment insurance. They supported and tried to strengthen the labor movement. The latter, as socialists, argued that capitalism could never be sufficiently humanized, and that trying to suppress the economic contradictions in one area would only see them emerge in a different guise elsewhere. (Eg, if you push unemployment too low, you'll get inflation; if job security is too strong, labor discipline breaks down; etc.)"
  75. ^ This definition is captured in this statement: Anthony Crosland "argued that the socialisms of the pre-war world (not just that of the Marxists , but of the democratic socialists too) were now increasingly irrelevant." (Chris Pierson, "Lost property: What the Third Way lacks", Journal of Political Ideologies (June 2005), 10(2), 145–163 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13569310500097265 ). Other texts which use the terms "democratic socialism" in this way include Malcolm Hamilton Democratic Socialism in Britain and Sweden (St Martin's Press 1989).
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